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Pediatric ophthalmologists are also very concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of amblyopia. Normal visual development requires proper visual stimulation and experience in infancy and childhood. When this does not occur, and the visual function in one or both eyes is impaired, then amblyopia is said to be present. The three main causes of amblyopia are occlusion (caused by drooping eyelids or congenital cataract), high refractive error (the need for glasses) and strabismus.

The pediatric ophthalmologist also cares for a variety of ocular conditions including tear duct obstructions, congenital cataracts, congenital and juvenile glaucoma, eyelid problems, and many others. Pediatric ophthalmologists have particular skills and equipment that allow them to best determine the nature of the child's problem and are accustomed to examining pre-verbal and uncooperative patients. Most pediatric ophthalmologists in the U.S. are members of The American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. The organization's website contains a great deal of useful information for patients and their families.

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